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* Appendicite aigue : 07/06/17 - APPENDICITE AIGUE cours médecine POSTERS VISION Vidéo: https://youtu.be/e-CjOptBAw8 Définition: L'appendicite est une inflammation aiguë de l'appendice, est une urgence chirurgicale la plus...
* jeûne du ramadan et diabète : 03/06/17 - Conférence sur le diabète et le jeûne du ramadan : Vidéo: https://youtu.be/M8b1xuZ1-6k le diabète et le jeûne du ramadan, physiologie la variation de la glycémie pendant le jeûne . conseils...

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* Modelling the regional impact of climate change on the suitability of the establishment of the Asian tiger mosquito ( Aedes albopictus ) in Serbia : 01/06/17 -

Abstract

The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is one of the world’s most dangerous invasive species. It has vector competence for a wide range of arboviruses such as chikungunya, dengue, Zika and Rift Valley fever viruses. The vector originated in Asia but has recently spread to the temperate regions of Europe and North America. Further spread to the north and the east and a shift to higher altitudes could be expected as a result of climate change. This makes modelling the regional climatic suitability for the establishment of A. albopictus in naïve regions a pressing issue. The future suitability and subsequent seasonal activity of the vector were investigated using three mechanistic models, with climatic data from the Eta Belgrade University-Princeton Ocean Model regional climate model. The results showed that after a slight decrease in suitability for the first part of the century, most of Serbia would become significantly more suitable for the establishment of A. albopictus. This is due to the simulated rise in seasonal and annual temperatures by the end of the twenty-first century. This study allows for the incorporation of regional heterogeneity in vector modelling. The spatial resolution of the maps obtained from a regional analysis is much higher than that acquired by a global model, allowing for detailed risk assessment and planning of surveillance focused on the habitats where the main introduction routes and climatic suitability are coupled. This work should be applied to all countries in the region with the risk of introduction or further spread of A. albopictus.


* Toward mosquito control with a green alga: expression of Cry toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp . israelensis (Bti) in the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas : 01/06/17 -

Abstract

We are developing Chlamydomonas strains that can be used for safe and sustainable control of mosquitoes, because they produce proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) in the chloroplast. Chlamydomonas has a number of advantages for this approach, including genetic controls that are not generally available with industrial algae. The Bti toxin has been used for mosquito control for >30 years and does not engender resistance; it contains three Cry proteins, Cry4Aa (135 kDa), Cry4Ba (128 kDa) and Cry11Aa (72 kDa), and Cyt1Aa (25 kDa). To express the Cry proteins in the chloroplast, the three genes were resynthesized and cry4Aa was truncated to the first 700 amino acids (cry4Aa 700 ); also, since they can be toxic to host cells, the inducible Cyc6:Nac2-psbD expression system was used. Western blots of total protein from the chloroplast transformants showed accumulation of the intact polypeptides, and the relative expression level was Cry11Aa > Cry4Aa700 > Cry4Ba. Quantitative western blots with purified Cry11Aa as a standard showed that Cry11Aa accumulated to 0.35% of the total cell protein. Live cell bioassays in dH20 demonstrated toxicity of the cry4Aa 700 and cry11Aa transformants to larvae of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. These results demonstrate that the Cry proteins that are most toxic to Aedes and Culex mosquitoes, Cry4Aa and Cry11Aa, can be successfully expressed in the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas.


* Innate and intrinsic antiviral immunity in Drosophila : 01/06/17 - Abstract The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been a valuable model to investigate the genetic mechanisms of innate immunity. Initially focused on the resistance to bacteria and fungi, these studies have be...
* Lack of Clinical Pharmacokinetic Studies to Optimize the Treatment of Neglected Tropical Diseases: A Systematic Review : 01/06/17 -

Abstract

Introduction

Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) affect more than one billion people, mainly living in developing countries. For most of these NTDs, treatment is suboptimal. To optimize treatment regimens, clinical pharmacokinetic studies are required where they have not been previously conducted to enable the use of pharmacometric modeling and simulation techniques in their application, which can provide substantial advantages.

Objectives

Our aim was to provide a systematic overview and summary of all clinical pharmacokinetic studies in NTDs and to assess the use of pharmacometrics in these studies, as well as to identify which of the NTDs or which treatments have not been sufficiently studied.

Methods

PubMed was systematically searched for all clinical trials and case reports until the end of 2015 that described the pharmacokinetics of a drug in the context of treating any of the NTDs in patients or healthy volunteers.

Results

Eighty-two pharmacokinetic studies were identified. Most studies included small patient numbers (only five studies included >50 subjects) and only nine (11 %) studies included pediatric patients. A large part of the studies was not very recent; 56 % of studies were published before 2000. Most studies applied non-compartmental analysis methods for pharmacokinetic analysis (62 %). Twelve studies used population-based compartmental analysis (15 %) and eight (10 %) additionally performed simulations or extrapolation. For ten out of the 17 NTDs, none or only very few pharmacokinetic studies could be identified.

Conclusions

For most NTDs, adequate pharmacokinetic studies are lacking and population-based modeling and simulation techniques have not generally been applied. Pharmacokinetic clinical trials that enable population pharmacokinetic modeling are needed to make better use of the available data. Simulation-based studies should be employed to enable the design of improved dosing regimens and more optimally use the limited resources to effectively provide therapy in this neglected area.


* Host-Virus Interaction of ZIKA Virus in Modulating Disease Pathogenesis : 01/06/17 -

Abstract

The Zika virus (ZIKV) is a newly emerging pathogen that has resulted in a worldwide epidemic. It primarily spreads either through infected Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquitos leading to severe neurological disorders such as microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome in susceptible individuals. The mode of ZIKV entry into specific cell types such as: epidermal keratinocytes, fibroblasts, immature dendritic cells (iDCs), and stem-cell-derived human neural progenitors has been determined through its major surface envelope glycoprotein. It has been known that oligosaccharides that are covalently linked to viral envelope proteins are crucial in defining host-virus interactions. However, the role of sugars/glycans in exploiting host-immune mechanisms and aiding receptor-mediated virus entry is not well defined. Therefore, this review focuses on host-pathogen interactions to better understand ZIKV pathogenesis.


* The spectrum of neuropathological changes associated with congenital Zika virus infection : 01/06/17 -

Abstract

A major concern associated with ZIKV infection is the increased incidence of microcephaly with frequent calcifications in infants born from infected mothers. To date, postmortem analysis of the central nervous system (CNS) in congenital infection is limited to individual reports or small series. We report a comprehensive neuropathological study in ten newborn babies infected with ZIKV during pregnancy, including the spinal cords and dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and also muscle, pituitaries, eye, systemic organs, and placentas. Using in situ hybridization (ISH) and electron microscopy, we investigated the role of direct viral infection in the pathogenesis of the lesions. Nine women had Zika symptoms between the 4th and 18th and one in the 28th gestational week. Two babies were born at 32, one at 34 and 36 weeks each and six at term. The cephalic perimeter was reduced in four, and normal or enlarged in six patients, although the brain weights were lower than expected. All had arthrogryposis, except the patient infected at 28 weeks gestation. We defined three patterns of CNS lesions, with different patterns of destructive, calcification, hypoplasia, and migration disturbances. Ventriculomegaly was severe in the first pattern due to midbrain damage with aqueduct stenosis/distortion. The second pattern had small brains and mild/moderate (ex-vacuo) ventriculomegaly. The third pattern, a well-formed brain with mild calcification, coincided with late infection. The absence of descending fibres resulted in hypoplastic basis pontis, pyramids, and cortico-spinal tracts. Spinal motor cell loss explained the intrauterine akinesia, arthrogryposis, and neurogenic muscle atrophy. DRG, dorsal nerve roots, and columns were normal. Lympho-histiocytic inflammation was mild. ISH showed meningeal, germinal matrix, and neocortical infection, consistent with neural progenitors death leading to proliferation and migration disorders. A secondary ischemic process may explain the destructive lesions. In conclusion, we characterized the destructive and malformative consequences of ZIKV in the nervous system, as reflected in the topography and severity of lesions, anatomic localization of the virus, and timing of infection during gestation. Our findings indicate a developmental vulnerability of the immature CNS, and shed light on possible mechanisms of brain injury of this newly recognized public health threat.


* 65 TH ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry and Allied Topics : 01/06/17 -
* Thieno[2,3-b]pyridine derivatives: a new class of antiviral drugs against Mayaro virus : 01/06/17 - Abstract Mayaro virus (MAYV) is an arthropod-borne virus and a member of the family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus. Its infection leads to an acute illness accompanied by long-lasting arthralgia. To date, there a...
* 2. Complications : 01/06/17 -
* International Congress of Physiotherapy: Women and sport: a multidisciplinary clinical approach. From recreational to top athlete : 26/05/17 - Congres médical/Evénement qui aura lieu le : 2018-01-27 : Spécialité: Médecine du sport

Présentation
L'objectif du congrès est de réunir les kinésithérapeutes, les autres professionnels de la santé et les entraîneurs pour échanger et actualiser les connaissances dans les domaines de la physiologie du sport et de la prise en charge clinique multidisciplinaire dédiées aux femmes.

Le congrès portera sur trois thèmes principaux : la physiologie et la performance, la thérapie par l’activité physique et les blessures liées à la pratique sportive...

Journaux : elmoudjahid  elwatan   lematindz  Tsa-algerie 

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